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Stax/Volt - Volume 9



Volume Nine

1. Down Ta My House – Rufus Thomas (2:22)
(S. Cropper-R. Thomas-B. Jones)
East Music*
Stax 240
Released December 4, 1967
Produced by Steve Cropper

2. As Long As I’ve Got You – Charmels
(Isaac Hayes-David Porter)
East Music*
Volt 155
Released December 5, 1967
Produced by Isaac Hayes and David Porter

3. Soul Girl – Jeanne & the Darlings (2:25)
(Isaac Hayes-David Porter)
East-Pronto Music**
Volt 156
Released December 5, 1967
Produced by Isaac Hayes and David Porter

4. Cold Feet – Albert King (2:43)
(Albert King-Al Jackson, Jr.)
East Music*
Stax 241
Released December 26, 1967
Highest Chart Position: R&B #20 / Pop #67
Produced by Al Jackson, Jr.

5. I Thank You – Sam & Dave (2:40)
(Isaac Hayes-David Porter)
East-Pronto Music**
Stax 242
Released January 8, 1968
Highest Chart Position: R&B #4 / Pop #9
Produced by Isaac Hayes and David Porter

6. Wrap It Up – Sam & Dave (2:27)
(Isaac Hayes-David Porter)
East-Pronto Music**
Stax 242-B
Released January 8, 1968
Produced by Isaac Hayes and David Porter

7. (Sittin’ On) The Dock Of The Bay – Otis Redding (2:38)
(Steve Cropper-Otis Redding)
East-Time-Redwal Music*
Volt 157
Released January 8, 1967
Highest Chart Position: R&B #1 / Pop #1
Produced by Steve Cropper

8. Don’t Pass Your Judgement – Memphis Nomads
(E. Hall, Jr.,-C. Weaver)
East Music*
Stax 243
Released January, 1968
Released under license from Fantasy, Inc.

9. Lovey Dovey – Otis & Carla
(A. Ertegun-M. Curtis)
Progressive Music***
Stax 244
Released January 24, 1968
Highest Chart Position: R&B #21 / Pop #60
Produced by Staff

10. I Got A Sure Thing – Ollie & the Nightingales (2:35)
(Booker T. Jones-William Bell-Ollie Hoskins)
East Music*
Stax 245
Released February 1, 1968
Highest Chart Position: R&B #16 / Pop #73
Produced by Booker T. Jones

11. Big Bird – Eddie Floyd
(Booker T. Jones-Eddie Floyd)
East Music*
Stax 246
Released February 1, 1968
Produced by Booker T. Jones

12. A Hard Day’s Night – Bar-Kays (2:42)
MacLen Music****
Volt 158
Released February, 1968
Produced by Al Jackson, Jr.

13. Next Time – Johnnie Taylor
(Homer Banks-Raymond Jackson)
East Music*
Stax 247
Released February 14, 1968
Highest Chart Position: R&B #34
Produced by Steve Cropper and Al Jackson, Jr.

14. A Tribute To A King – William Bell
(Booker T. Jones-William Bell)
East Music*
Stax 248
Released March 12, 1968
Highest Chart Position: R&B #16 / Pop #86
Produced by Booker T. Jones

15. Every Man Oughta Have A Woman – William Bell (2:40)
(B. Jones-A. Isbell-W. Bell)
East Music*
Stax 248-B
Released March 12, 1968
Produced by Booker T. Jones

16. Able Mable – Mable John
(Mable John-Little John)
East Music*
Stax 249
Released March 12, 1968
Produced by Steve Cropper and Al Jackson, Jr.

17. The Memphis Train – Rufus Thomas (2:30)
(R. Thomas-B. Rice-W. Sparks)
East Music*
Stax 250
Released March 12, 1968
Produced by Steve Cropper

18. I Think I Made A Boo Boo – Rufus Thomas
(William Bell-Harold Beane)
East Music*
Stax 250-B
Released March 12, 1968
Produced by Steve Cropper

19. What Will Later On Be Like – Jeanne & the Darlings (2:45)
(Homer Banks-Allen Jones)
East Music*
Volt 159
Released March, 1968
Produced by Allen Jones & Homer Banks under the supervision of Isaac Hayes and David Porter

20. Hang Me Now – Jeanne & the Darlings (2:16)
(Allen Jones-Betty Crutcher)
East Music*
Volt 159-B
Released March, 1968
Produced by Allen Jones & Homer Banks under the supervision of Isaac Hayes and David Porter

21. Soul Power – Derek Martin
(T. Randazzo-V. Pike)
Razzle Dazzle Music*****
Volt 160
Released March 26, 1968
Produced by Teddy Randazzo

22. Bring Your Love Back To Me – Linda Lyndell (2:06)
Crazy Cajun Music******
Volt 161
Released March 26, 1968
Produced by Dave Crawford

23. A Dime A Dozen – Carla Thomas (2:49)
(Isaac Hayes-David Porter)
East Music*
Stax 251
Released March 29, 1968
Produced by Isaac Hayes and David Porter

24. Whatever Hurts You – Mad Lads (2:49)
(Allen Jones)
East Music*
Volt 162
Released April 8, 1968
Highest Chart Position: R&B #31
Produced by Al Jackson, Jr., and Allen Jones

25. The Happy Song (Dum-Dum) – Otis Redding (2:40)
(Otis Redding-Steve Cropper)
East-Time-Redwal Music*
Volt 163
Released April 8, 1968
Highest Chart Position: R&B #10 / Pop #46
Produced by Steve Cropper

26. (I Love) Lucy – Albert King
(William Bell-Booker T. Jones)
East Music*
Stax 252
Released April 18, 1968
Highest Chart Position: R&B #46

27. I Ain’t Particular – Johnnie Taylor (2:25)
(Isaac Hayes-David Porter)
East Music*
Stax 253
Released April 25, 1968
Highest Chart Position: R&B #45
Produced by Al Jackson, Jr. and Steve Cropper


Otis Redding had been largely inactive in the early fall of 1967 as he had had polyps removed from his throat. For six weeks he had not been able to speak above a whisper. Once recovered he was absolutely thrilled with the results. In late November he re-entered the studio and for three weeks cut one superb track after another. He had never sung better. The material released on a number of posthumous albums stems from these extended sessions.

The last song he recorded was "(Sittin' On) The Dock Of The Bay." Otis worked on it December 6th and 7th. The afternoon of December 8th. with the Bar-Kays as backup, he flew to Nashville for the first of day they continued their weekend sojourn, flying to Cleveland where they appeared on Don Webster's Upbeat TV show in the afternoon and later that evening played the second of the weekend shows. Early the next morning Otis called his wife. "He was depressed about something," Zelma Redding recalled to writer Peter Guralnick "I remember that very well and he talked to little Otis who was just three ... he said he would call me when he got to Madison.” Otis never placed the later call as his twin engine Beechcraft spun out into Lake Monona just short of its destination of Madison, Wisconsin. Redding, all but two of the original Bar-Kays, and their road manager perished.

Until his death, Otis, in many ways, was the heart and soul of Stax. His success with black audiences was inspirational, totalling 21 R&B chart singles in just over four-and-a-half years while he was alive, with another ten charting in the 24-month period following his untimely death. During the last year of his life he had also started to make serious headway towards crossing over to a pop audience via the Stax/Volt tour of Europe in March and April, an overwhelming performance at the Monterey Pop Festival in June, and finally with the recording of "(Sittin' On) The Dock Of The Bay" in the last few days of his life. The latter, released January 8, 1968, within weeks of his death, was, incredibly, his first record to break the Pop Top 20. It eventually spent four weeks as the #1 Pop record in the nation.

The song represented a dramatic change in direction for Otis. He had written it in the summer while staying on a houseboat in California after the Monterey Pop Festival.

Many of his closest associates did not know how to react to it. Jim Stewart remembers his initial reaction: "To me, 'Dock Of The Bay,' when I first heard it, was not nearly as strong as 'I've Been Loving You Too Long.' Of course it was a different kind of record for Otis. I always saw Otis as 'Pain In My Heart,' 'I've Been Loving You Too Long' and 'Try A little Tenderness.'''

"Most people had doubts about it," agreed Otis's manager Phil Walden. "It was a drastic change. Listening to it in retrospect now, it isn't that much [of a change] but for those times, it sounded like it might have been a little too pop."

After Otis's death it was left to Steve Cropper and the rest of the staff at Stax to pick up the pieces and finish the record. The first version forwarded to Atlantic's offices was quite a bit different from the one ultimately released. Phil Walden thought that it had a little too much atmospheric bird and surf noise. JerryWexler felt that Redding's voice was not high enough up in the mix.

The latter had been a long-standing source of contention between the principals at Stax and Atlantic. The Stax/Volt sound, as designed by Jim Stewart and Steve Cropper, conceived of the vocalists and rhythm section as nearly equal in importance. Eventually, they came to consensus upon the stunningly strong and deeply moving final version of "Dock Of The Bay.”

The song was evidence that Otis Redding was indeed a special artist capable of growing and changing. On a record unlike anything previously heard in soul music. Otis's voice, communicating absolute confidence, is framed by Steve Cropper's exquisite guitar commentary from beginning to end. The rest of the Stax house band plays with utter restraint. What Otis might have gone on to do we can only guess.

The same month that "(Sittin' On) The Dock Of The Bay" was issued, Stax pulled the third single from Redding and Carla Thomas's King And Queen LP. "Lovey Dovey" was a remake of the Clovers' 1954 #2 R&B hit. Redding and Thomas dramatically refashion the song, transforming what had been an exquisite but relaxed vocal group harmony performance into a fiery-hot stomping duet. Overshadowed by "Dock Of The Bay,” "Lovey Dovey" had to settle for #21 R&B and #60 Pop.

One more posthumous Redding forty-five was issued on Volt before Atlantic and Stax severed their distribution agreement. "The Happy Song (Dum-Dum-De-De-De-Dum-Dum)" was an answer to 1966's "Fa-Fa-Fa-Fa-Fa (Sad Song)." Recorded in those final sessions just before the plane crash, Redding is obviously delighted to be singing again. From the opening horn melody to his laugh as he states, "You ought to see my baby's face/She just grins, grins, grins," the track radiates delirious ecstasy. That ecstasy transmitted to a Top 10 R&B and Top 30 Pop hit.

In these final months of what is variously known as "Stax in the Sixties," "The Stax/Atlantic Period" or "Stax: Mark I,” all of the company's stalwarts and a handful of newcomers released at least one record each. In December 1967 Rufus Thomas sashayed forth with the sly "Down Ta [sic] My House." Co-written with Steve Cropper and Booker T. Jones, it was a weak entry that was soon forgotten. Much better was "The Memphis Train." The latter was co-written with Mack Rice and Willie Sparks. Sparks was a harmonica playing buddy of Rice's from Detroit. He wrote the basic song, with Rice taking an initial pass at the lyrics up in Detroit and Rufus modifying things a little in the studio at McLemore. The result was a wild, stomping Rufus workout that ranks with his very best. The B-side, "I Think I Made A Boo Boo," was equally fine. Unbelievably, neither side charted.

Rufus's daughter, Carla, fared no better with her final release in the Atlantic period, the Hayes-Porter song "A Dime A Dozen." Carla hated the David Porter lyric. "His mind was on who was hitting and who was hitting was Sam And Dave," sighed Carla. "I told him that's where this one ought to go. 'A dime a dozen on a tootsie roll': Sam And Dave could say that and get away with it. Carla Thomas can't say 'A dime a dozen on a tootsie roll,' although she said it 'cause she was silly."

Although Hayes and Porter had no better chart success with their efforts for The Charmels and Jeanne And The Darlings than they did with Carla Thomas in this period, arguably the writing was more sympathetic. With The Charmels' "As Long As I've Got You" Hayes was trying to, in Porter's words, "go uptown." He was attempting to write something in the Burt Bacharach-Hal David mold. The result was right on the money. It's surprising that it didn't sell.

That same month the writing duo decided to rewrite the words to "Soul Man" and cut it on Jeanne And The Darlings as "Soul Girl." The Darlings' Dee Dolphus remembers. "I didn't necessarily like 'Soul Girl' but we thought because of the big come-off with Sam And Dave's 'Soul Man' that that would really be a biggie for us. But it didn't do too well." Part of the problem was that the backing track just didn't have the power of the original.

Homer Banks and Allen Jones took over from Hayes and Porter for Jeanne And The Darlings' third Volt release. "What Will Later On Be Like" was a tension-filled accusatory ballad. Jeanne turns in one of her finest lead vocals. The flip, the Bettye Crutcher-Allen Jones-penned "Hang Me Now," was, in direct contrast, an uptempo dance number just leaping with electricity.

Hayes and Porter did score big with Sam And Dave's tenth single, "I Thank You" b/w "Wrap It Up." Released in January of 1968,"I Thank You" is introduced by Sam Moore's imploration "I want everybody to get up off your seat and get your arms together and your hands together and give me some of that old soul clapping.” Listening to the way Sam plays with the word "old" one can imagine what a great preacher he would have made.

Supporting Sam, drummer Al Jackson plays an odd drum pattern involving straight eighths on the snare with every third one being accented. David Porter remembers coming up with the idea: "I said, 'I want the sound of horses.’ I was trying to come up with a character for it and the only thing I could think of while we were in the studio was horses. When I said that, the cats turned around and looked at me like I was a goddamn fool. But Al [Jackson] said, 'Okay, I'll try.' So he counted it off and he just put his sticks over the rim and that was where it came from. We could take our thoughts and communicate it to him and he was brazen enough to think that he could do it."

The record, in nearly all respects, is unusual for Stax. Hayes uses a clavinet for the first time and, to match the new keyboard sound, Cropper employs a really dirty distorted guitar timbre. It is also the only Sam And Dave/Hayes and Porter production to use background vocals, provided by relative newcomers Ollie And The Nightingales. The lead vocal for the B-side, "Wrap It Up," was recorded in Paris in the midst of a Sam And Dave tour as, once the backing track was finished, Atlantic and Stax, sure that they had a hit on their hands, were both anxious to get the record on the market prior to the dissolution of their partnership.

Hayes and Porter's last contribution to Stax in the Atlantic period was the writing of Johnnie Taylor's and, appropriately enough, Stax's final forty-five to be distributed by Atlantic. Produced by Al Jackson and Steve Cropper, "I Ain't Particular" was an uptempo strut that Taylor rode to the #45 R&B slot. Two months earlier Homer Banks, with new partner guitarist Raymond Jackson, had a song called "Next Time" cut by Taylor and produced by Steve Cropper and Al Jackson that made the thirty-fourth R&B grade.

Albert King also had some success with Al Jackson productions in the last few Atlantic days. "Cold Feet" sported a rather odd lyric that mentioned several of King's label mates, mock-threatened disc jockeys across the land, and somehow worked a woman's cold feet into the bargain. Co-credited to King and Jackson, it sounds to me as if it grew out of a jam on a vamp when they found themselves short of material. Nevertheless, with King's mercurial guitar showcased throughout, "Cold Feet" didn't stop until it hit #20 R&B and #67 Pop (the latter being King's highest Pop placing ever).

For King's final Atlantic-distributed release, Jackson cut him on a William Bell and Booker T. composition entitled "(I Love) Lucy." The song's title was a pun on the TV show and the whole lyric was built on an extended metaphor as "Lucy" is the name of King's guitar (not so coincidentally, B.B. King's guitar is named "Lucille"). Although a little cliched, King's guitar helped the single hit the #46 spot on the R&B charts.

Although "(I Love) Lucy" is not the finest example, William Bell and Booker T. Jones had grown into an extraordinarily fine writing team in the final few years of the Atlantic/Stax partnership. In February 1968 a song they wrote in tandem with lead singer Ollie Hoskins called "I Got A Sure Thing" was released by Ollie And The Nightingales.

Hoskins had one of the great gospel-influenced R&B voices of all time. He had been singing gospel since 1950 with first the Wayside Travellers and then the Gospel Writer Juniors. The latter recorded in the late fifties for the Pepper label before changing their name to the Dixie Nightingales. The new name was suggested by a woman from West Memphis as part of a WDIA radio contest to rename the group. Her reasoning was that they sang a lot of material by both the Dixie Hummingbirds and the Sensational Nightingales, so why not combine the two.

As the Dixie Nightingales they recorded in the early sixties for Nashboro. In 1965 they signed with Stax's short-lived first gospel label, Chalice. Three great forty-fives were issued by Chalice before Al Bell finally convinced them to sing R&B. Group member Willie Neal left because he didn't feel comfortable with secular material. He was replaced by Quincy Billops, formerly of The Premiers and The Mad Lads, and their name was changed to the secular Ollie And The Nightingales. (The Premiums and the Meditators were names briefly considered.) At the time of the record, the group consisted of Ollie Hoskins, Rochester Neal, Bill Davis, Quincy Billops and guitarist Nelson Lesure. Lesure does not appear on the record, as Steve Cropper handles the guitar chores.

Ollie remembers adding the third verse, as the song in the form presented by Bell and Jones was too short. The resulting record was sweet with just a hint of potential explosiveness. Fueled by Hoskins's increasingly incendiary vocal it went to the #16 R&B and #73 Pop position. The Nightingales would release a number of forty-fives on Stax after the Atlantic deal and Ollie Nightingale (nee Hoskins) subsequently recorded a number of solo sides for a variety of labels right into the mid-eighties, but their debut. "I Got A Sure Thing:' would remain their most successful effort.

Bell and Jones also penned the lovingly tender Otis Redding remembrance "A Tribute To A King," recording it with Bell handling the lead vocal chores. The song had been written a few days after Redding's death. In the meantime, a number of Otis tributes were released. Bell, not wanting to cash in, decided to just send the recording to Redding's widow, Zelma, in his words, "Just as a momento or keep-sake. She loved it. So she called back and asked Jim [Stewart] if he would release it. So when Jim asked me and Booker, we hassled back and forth 'cause I was really adamant against putting it out."

Bell eventually agreed to issuing it as the B-side of "Every Man Oughta Have A Woman." A number of DJs flipped the record and, like it or not, "A Tribute To A King" was a #16 R&B, #86 Pop hit. Dressed in an absolutely gorgeous arrangement complete with strings, Bell sings it with a voice full of equal helpings of love and sadness. What could have been corny and cliched comes across as an incredibly moving and fitting testimony to the Big O.

Booker T. was also involved with another record connected, at least peripherally, to Otis's death. When Redding's plane crashed, Eddie Floyd was overseas on tour. "The day of the funeral was the end of my tour," shuddered Floyd. "I had a flight booked to leave to go to New York and then to Atlanta. We got out to the airport and we got on the plane. The plane taxis out and it looks like it's ready to take off. We went down the runway and suddenly it puts on the brakes, throwing folks everywhere. Something happened to one of the motors on that big jet. They took us back to the airport and we were there for five or six hours. That's where I wrote that song, 'Get on up big bird.'"

Floyd ended up missing the funeral.

When he did get back to the States, he went straight to Memphis and finished the song, "Big Bird,” with Booker. Floyd refers to it as his rock and roll record. It is certainly outside of the typical Stax idea of soul. Booker plays virtually all the instruments on the record, including the winding duo guitar parts. Incredibly, on initial release, it died a quick death. Today soul aficionados nearly without exception take its greatness for granted.

It was Allen Jones' idea to cover The Beatles' "A Hard Day's Night" for the third and final release by the original Bar-Kays. Just as Al Jackson had become responsible for Johnnie Taylor's and Albert King's recordings, so Allen Jones had become the producer and mentor for the Bar-Kays. In the wake of Otis's death, radio seemed to forget that all but two of the Bar-Kays had also perished in the plane crash. The record was ignored. Regrouped with a different sound, a second edition of the Bar-Kays would return to the radio waves in 1971 briefly with "Son Of Shaft,” and beginning in the second half of the seventies they would become one of the premier R&B charting groups of all time.

Allen Jones was also responsible for The Mad Lads' final Atlantic-distributed release. "Whatever Hurts You" was the group's first chart entry in a year and a half. Written by Jones and co-produced by Jones and Al Jackson, "Whatever Hurts You" showcased John Gary Williams's voice to prime effect, surrounded by the background vocals of the rest of The Mad Lads filled with doo-wop purity.

"Able Mable" was Mable John's nickname. It was also the title of her sixth Stax release. She had written the song back when she was with Motown and for years had used it as an intro for her stage performances. Her mother contributed the line "Everybody wants to get to the promised land but no one wants to die" and consequently receives a co-writing credit. Despite an irresistibly catchy groove, the record failed to chart.

One of the strangest of all Stax records is the Memphis Nomads' "Don't Pass Your Judgement." The Nomads were a white Memphis group that permutated from the Poor Little Rich Kids, who had recorded for Hip, Stax's pop subsidiary, two years earlier. As Steve Cropper recalled, "There were a lot of white groups in Memphis at the time trying to sound like the Box Tops, and the Memphis Nomads were one of them."

"Don't Pass Your Judgement" is the only post-1965 record on this collection that was not picked up for national distribution by Atlantic. The label of the forty-five along the bottom states that "All proceeds from this benefit the March of Dimes," while at the top of the label is printed "Distributed by the Memphis and Shelby County Chapter of the March of Dimes." Pressed locally as a charitable favor, the record could only be obtained in exchange for a donation, making it one of the rarest Stax singles.

The last two records that need to be discussed were lease jobs. Derek Martin's "Soul Power" was originally issued on the Tuba label out of Detroit. Written by New York arranger Teddy Randazzo and V. Pike, the song owes a debt to the Parliaments' 1967 hit "(I Wanna) Testify," released on Detroit's Revilot label. Martin had been around for a while cutting, as a member of the Top Notes, the very first version of "Twist And Shout,” produced by a young Phil Spector for Atlantic in 1961. His other claim to fame was waxing the original version of "Daddy Rolling Stone." A journeyman singer in the best sense of the word, he has recorded for a number of labels besides Volt, including Sue and Roulette. The deal of leasing "Soul Power" may have been facilitated by the Motor City's Don Davis, who over the next few years would have a large influence at Stax.

Linda Lyndell's "Bring Your Love Back To Me" was one of two releases she would have on Volt (the second was the first Volt record issued after ties were severed with Atlantic). Both Lyndell records were Dave Crawford productions and, as such, were presumably recorded in Miami. Other than that she was part Native American, nothing is known about Lyndell.

The agreement signed between Stax and Atlantic in 1965 had included a clause that stated if Atlantic should sell to, or merge with, another company, Stax had the option to go along and be part of the deal or they could declare the contract null and void. When Atlantic was sold in early 1968, Stax/Volt chose the latter path.

Stax in many ways was the "little label that could." A rhythm and blues operation almost by accident, as a company it basically created and defined the sound of Southern Soul in the sixties. The Sam And Dave and Otis Redding recordings were the apotheosis of  the Atlantic-distributed period, but a number of other artists also recorded seminal Memphis hits at this time. Notable are Booker T. And The MG's "Green Onions" (1962) and "Hip Hug-Her" (1967), Rufus Thomas's "Walking The Dog" (1963), Carla Thomas's "Gee Whiz" (1961) and "B-A-B-Y" (1966), William Bell's "You Don't Miss Your Water" (1961) and "A Tribute To A King" (1968), The Mad Lads' "I Want Someone" (1966), the Mar-Keys' "Last Night" (1961) and "Philly Dog" (1966), Albert King's "Crosscut Saw" and "Born Under A Bad Sign" (1967), the Bar-Kays' "Soul Finger" (1967), Ollie And The Nightingales' "I Got A Sure Thing" (1968) and Eddie Floyd's "Knock On Wood" (1966) and "Raise Your Hand" (1967). All of these records, as well as a host of others that were equally as great but were not necessarily hits, were recorded in the same studio with, in essence, the same session musicians. Most of these were, in addition, written by the same handful of writers. The result was a consistency in sound that served to identify Stax and Memphis soul throughout the sixties.

That sound would mutate in a number of ways after May 1968 and in some ways the company would have greater commercial success in its second period, hitting hard with Isaac Hayes, the Staple Singers, the Emotions, and the Dramatics, as well as with holdovers Johnnie Taylor, William Bell, Eddie Floyd, Rufus and Carla Thomas, and Booker T. And The MG's. But for most listeners the first period represented on the nine volumes that comprise The Complete Stax/Volt Singles: 1959-1968 will forever remain the golden period. Soul music never got any better.

*Irving Music, BMI Administered outside the US by Warner Tamerlane Publishing Corp.
**Pronto Music/Irving Music, BMI Administered by Warner Tamerlane Publishing Corp.
***Unichappell Music, BMI
****MacLen Music-EMI Unart Music, BMI
*****Adlor Music, BMI
******Crazy Cajun Music, BMI

For authenticity, producer and publisher credits are listed as they appeared on the original singles. Current Publishing information accompanies each individual volume. Prior to 1967, producer credits were not generally listed on single labels.
U.S. chart positions courtesy of Billboard


This compilation (P) & © 1001 Atlantic Recording Company for the United States and WEA International Inc., for the world outside of the United States.
Stax ® and Volt ® are registered trademarks of Fantasy, Inc.

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